How Uber is using Gamification to Manipulate Drivers
Uber users do not like to wait for their ride. The service should act very quickly. But that’s not always as easy as it sounds. Drivers are not employed by Uber; they drive whenever it suits them. Uber can not instruct drivers when and how long they should be driving. So how does Uber guarantee a short waiting period?
According to the New York Times, Uber manipulates drivers by using psychological tricks from videogames (gamification). They’ve noticed Uber’s efforts after interviewing several former and current employees, such as data-analysts, social scientists and drivers.
Objectives by Uber
Many drivers have said to receive messages from the company encouraging them to stay on the road to earn more money. So what kind of messages are we talking about? What are these psychological triggers?
The first method is called the ludic loop, which is a concept coming from the gaming industry. The ludic loop creates a feeling of progress toward a certain goal that is always just beyond the player’s grasp.
A great example of this concept is the 1980s hit game called Tetris. Stacking blocks on top of each other until that one block appears that will vaporise 4 complete lines. Pure satisfaction! But as soon as that puzzle has resolved itself, new ones are immediately created. More anticipation, more goals, more satisfaction. A never ending loop of reaching that new high score.
So how is Uber using the ludic loop? When drivers are logging out, they receive a message saying that they’re only a few dollars short of reaching a new objective. Just have a look at the screenshot below.
Drivers can also earn badges. “Excellent Service” or “Great Conversation” are just a few of the available badges. Handing out or earning badges is also a concept from the gaming industry. Whenever gamers reach a certain goal, they would receive a virtual badge for a job well done.
Badges are a powerful tool. New York Times spoke to a driver, who made it his full time job. He earned less than 20.000$ for the entire year (without car maintenance, fuel, …), struggling to make ends meet, but was proud of earning 21 badges.
Another little trick is called ‘forward dispatch’, in which drivers already receive a new job before the current job has finished. Nothing as dull as waiting for a drive, right? This ensures the continuous stream of new jobs. Both driver and Uber are happy.
There is a downside to it though. Researchers have noticed the addictive effect it has on people. You can compare it with Netflix and how they persuade viewers in watching one episode after the other one. This trick was so effective that Uber had to create a “pause button” because they noticed that drivers barely took any breaks in between jobs.
Where to make money?
Uber drivers receive a lot of messages, trying to convince them to start driving. For example, they would show them which zone has the highest demand of its service. Uber even introduced Laura, a female persona, to speak these messages out loud because the majority of the drivers are men.
Not only Uber is using these concepts from the gaming industry to motivate people. Think about all the loyalty programs that retailers have in store for example. Even UX Designers can learn a lot from the gaming industry!
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